Chilled water is passed through the flue gas. Water and carbon dioxide form hydrates.
Metals/metal oxides react with oxygen to remove it from the air. The oxygen is then contacted with the fuel producing carbon dioxide and water.
Adsorbents preferentially attract molecules of carbon dioxide to their surface. A change in pressure or temperature releases the carbon dioxide.
Carbon dioxide is produced in the manufacture of ammonia from natural gas or other fossil fuels. It is separated as part of the process, so it is ready for compression and transport to storage.
In natural gas processing, CO2 is separated in the gas sweetening stage.
The process of making iron and steel creates CO2 emissions through the use of fuel for energy and the use of coke and limestone.
Cement manufacture produces significant CO2 emissions through the use of fuel to provide high temperatures and the use of limestone.
Capture applications (after CO2CRC Capture Project and IEA GHG R&D PROGRAM).
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